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Statistics on Education
By : Jandhyala B. G. Tilak

Indian Educational Statistics


India is perhaps one of the few countries which established a sound statistical system centuries ago. In the case of education statistics, ‘"Educational Development in India" dates back to 1870. Since educational planning and administration for elementary education is a state subject, the primary responsibility for collection, collation tabulation, analysis and transmission of educational data therefore lies with education departments of the states/UTs. The educational statistics in India are collected on 100 percent count basis. The data is collected through the teachers working in the same school for which data is recorded through a survey form. The data collected from the schools is not validated at any level. At some levels, the aggregated data is compared with the previous years to determine if there are violent fluctuations which are difficult to explain. Some adjustments are made to fine tune the aggregated data but there is no record of the nature and magnitude of the adjustment. This aspect has been criticized by many educational experts.

The state/UT level data is aggregated and reported at the national level in the prescribed formats. Collection, compilation, analysis and publication of the national data are coordinated by the Department of Education, Ministry of HRD. The MHRD has a Planning, Monitoring and Statistics Division which coordinates with various states. Additional data are provided by other ministries/departments like Census of India, Department of Labour, University Grants Commission (Higher education sector), Indian Council of Medical research etc.,

The data on higher education is more difficult to get.

Within the broad framework outlined above, the educational data is organized into the following categories:

The data management and its use for policy analysis, program design, implementation and monitoring is an area of concern. The whole exercise is seen more as a reporting system rather than a tool to assist the decision makers. Thus a major factor affecting the quality of educational statistics and their analysis at the state and national level is the limited use of educational statistics. Notwithstanding these factors, the main categories for classification of data relating to education and allied sectors are:

  • Demographic, social and economic context of education (such as population growth rates, per capita income, literacy levels and settlement structure).

  • Access, Participation and Equity in Education,

  • The Learning Environment and the Organization of Schools

  • Human Resources in Education

  • Financing and Budgeting

  • Students’ Achievement and Labour Market Outcomes of Education.

  • Indicators of Efficiency and Effectiveness of Education

The above categories are not mutually exclusive but have many commonalities and overlapping variables/indicators. Nevertheless, the above classification is important to organize the statistical system and their reporting arrangements.

Disclaimer: While all efforts have been made to cross check and compare the data reported in various tables, the dise.in is not responsible for the accuracy, reliability and consistency of the data. The users are requested to refer to the original source of data.


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